Selected Readings and Websites for Training in Evidence-Based Practice for Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Article Name and Citation

Topic

Abstract or Summary Description of Article

Recommendations for Use

General Principles

Principle 1: Teach to base practice on research

Principle 2: Teach  Critical Thinking

Principle 3: Teach    Life-Long Thinking

Principle 4: Integrate experiential with didactic learning in all aspects of training 

Allan, G.M., Korownyk, C., Tan, A., Hindle, H., Kung, L., Manca, D. (2008).  Developing an Integrated Evidence-Bases Medicine Curriculum for Family Medicine Residency at the University of Alberta.  Academic Medicine, 83, 581-587.

Describes systematic, structured approach to developing an EBM training program

I recommend that the committee read this article because it provides us with an example of how an EBM curriculum may be successfully implemented. The University of A revamped their EBM curriculum to incorporate evidence-based medicine training in a more systematic, structured into their residency training. I am sure there are many examples of how other programs but this seemed like a good example of one as it involved a systematic review of the components of training that didn’t work, a systematic incorporation of a new, comprehensive EBM program, along with an evaluation of the new program. Components of a standard EBM program include a workshop combining a lecture portion and a small group interactive learning, utilization of a database resource, journal club and the BEAR project to help trainees learn how to identify clinical questions, focus their search, get answers, reflect on and present answers.

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training

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Barlow, D.H. (ed). (2010) The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

A handbook that provides research, practice, and policy factors in clinical psychology

" It has sections on topics such as training, assessment, diagnosis, and intervention as well as in emerging issues in the clinical field, including heath care reforms, cultural factors, and technological innovations and challenges. Each chapter offers a review of the literature, outlines current issues and identifies possibilities for future research.

Faculty and students

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Barratt, A., Wyer, P.C., Hatala, R., McGinn, T.G.,. Dans, A. D.,  Keitz,S.,  Moyer, V., & Guyatt G, The Evidence-Based Medicine Teaching Tips Working Group. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. Relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 2004 171:353-358; doi:10.1503/cmaj.1021197

Tips for faculty to teach Evidence-Based Medicine

Physicians, patients and policy-makers are influenced not only by the results of studies but also by how authors present the results.1,2,3,4 Depending on which measures of effect authors choose, the impact of an intervention may appear very large or quite small, even though the underlying data are the same. In this article we present 3 measures of effect — relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat — in a fashion designed to help clinicians understand and use them. We have organized the article as a series of “tips” or exercises. This means that you, the reader, will have to do some work in the course of reading this article (we are assuming that most readers are practitioners, as opposed to researchers and educators).

Faculty

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Barrett, A.  (2008)  Evidence-Based Medicine and Shared Decision Making: The Challenge of getting both evidence and preferences into health care.  Patient Education and Counseling 73, pp. 407 – 412.  doi: 10.1016

Discusses 4 steps of EBM and how this approach can fit with shared decision making

Although I am not recommending that everyone read this given time constraints, this article address a key issue for psychology with its proliferation of non-evidence based treatments, begging the question of whether evidence-based practice in psychology can truly be compatible with shared decision making. Although the article loses its way toward the end, the strength of the article is its review of the four steps of EBM along with a discussion of how they can be lead to a compatibility between EBM and shared decision making  – EBM Step1 is the development of a searchable focused, clinical question, Step 2 is the search for evidence, Step 3 is to find and appraise the best evidence and Step 4 involves bringing it altogether to make a decision by taking into account individual client variables that may affect the efficacy of the intervention (e.g., age, comorbid disorders, etc.), and client values and preferences regarding treatments. They suggest that presenting the evidence and along with how individual client variables may interact with the intervention, may modify clients’ values and preferences regarding evidence-based intervention.

Faculty/supervisors reading prior to implementing EBP training

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Bauer, R. (2007)  Evidence Based Practice in Psychology: Implications for Research and Research Training.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, pp. 685 – 694. doi:10.1002/jtlp20374

Reviews 3 pillars of EBM, ESTs vs. EBM and areas of training that would need to occur to achieve EBM

He reviews evidence-based medicine in the context of psychology. He reviews the three pillars of EBM, discusses the confusion in psychology between ESTs and EBM, and discusses the areas of training that would need to occur in doctoral training in order to achieve EBP such as epidemiology, clinical trials methodology, qualitative research methods and measurement (along with quant methods of course), conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses, informatics and database searching skills.

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training

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Berke, D. M., Rozell, C. A,  Hogan, T.P., Norcross, J. P., & Karpiak, C. J. (2011). What Clinical Psychologists Know about Evidence-Based Practice: Familiarity with Online. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 1–11.

Assessment of what clinical psychologists still need to learn about Evidence-Based Practice

Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires that practitioners routinely access, appraise, and utilize the best available research. We surveyed a representative sample of the Society of Clinical Psychology; 549 psychologists (response rate = 46%) reported their frequency of engaging in EBP when offering psychological services, rated their current knowledge of 12 online research resources, and evaluated their current knowledge of 12 research methods and designs. These psychologists reported, on average, using EBP in 73.1% of their psychological services. With the exception of PsycINFO and MEDLINE, clinical psychologists related low to moderate knowledge of online research resources. By contrast, these psychologists reported considerable knowledge of most research methods and designs, except for odds ratios and structural equation modeling. Psychologists' theoretical orientation, clinical experience, and employment setting predicted knowledge of both online resources and research designs. We discuss the educational and practice ramifications of these results

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training

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Boswell, J.F., & Castonguay, L.G. (2007), Special section on effective elements of psychotherapy training.  Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, and Training

Psychotherapy Training

This series of papers discuss effective components (e.g., principles of change, helpful skills, therapeutic relationship, program infrastructure, ) of psychotherapy training

Faculty and students

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Castonguay, L.G., & Beutler, L.E. (Eds) (2006).  Principles of therapeutic change that work. New York: Oxford University Press

 Empirically evidenced principles of change

This book derives principles of change (or general guidelines cutting across theoretical orientations) that are based on empirical evidence, and that are related to client's characteristics, techniques, and therapeutic relationship.  The principles are delineated for the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse disorders, and personality disorders. 

Faculty and students

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Castonguay, L.G., & Otlmanns, T. (2013). Psychopathology: From science to clincal practice.  New York: Guilford

EBP supplement

The chapters of this book, writing by expert researchers in psychopathology and/or psychotherapy, derive assessment and treatment guidelines from basic research in psychopathology

 

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Castonguay, L.G., Barkham, M., Lutz, W., & McAleavey (2013).  Practice-oriented research: Approaches and applications.  Iin M.J. Lambert (Ed).  Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (sixth edition).  (pages 85-132). Wiley: New York

Research conducted in naturalistic settings with active participation of clinicians

This chapter reviews research that are complementary to randomized clinical trials and that are aimed at involving clinicians in design and/or implementation of data to inform clinical practice

Faculty and students

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Castonguay, L.G., Boswell, J.F., ,Constantino, M.J., Goldfried, M.R., & Hill, C.E. (2010). Training Implications of Harmful Effects of Psychological Treatments. American Psychologist, 65, 34-49.

Prevent and repair therapy deterioration

This paper present empirically based but also theoretically and clinically driven recommendations to trainers to help their trainees to prevent and repair deterioration in therapy that have been documented by research.

Faculty/clinical supervisors and students

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Chambless & Ollendick (2001).  Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence

Empirically- supported treatments

The papers summarizes tasks forces that have been created to define EST, as well as the treatments that have been identified as such.  Controversies about numerous issues related to such identification are also discussed

Faculty and students

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Collins, F.L., Leffingwell, T. R & Belar, C.D. (2007).  Teaching evidence-based practice: Implications for psychology. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 657-670.

Description of EBPP with examples for training

The authors address common myths associated with EBP, propose core components involved in teaching EBPP, and describe an example of how such training can be incorporated into a professional psychology education and training curriculum

 

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Cooper, M. (2008).  Essential research findings in counseling and psychotherapy: The facts are friendly.  London: Sage

 A summary of research evidence

Written for the clinician who wants book present a jargon-free summary of the research evidence on the efficacy of therapy, treatment orientation, therapist factors, client factors, relationship factors, and techniques factors.

Practitioners

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Dawes MG, Summerskill W, Glasziou P et al. Sicily statement on evidence-based practice. BMC Med Educ 2005; 5: 1. Accessed 30 October 2006.

A consensus statement of what EBP means, a description of the skills required to practice in an EB manner and a curriculum that outlines the minimum requirements for training health professionals in EBP patient outcomes

a consensus statement of what EBP means, a description of the skills required to practice in an EB manner and a curriculum that outlines the minimum requirements for training health professionals in EBP patient outcomes

Faculty and students

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Dillilo and McChargue (2007).  Implementing elements of evidence-based practice into scientist practitioner training at the University of Nevada-Lincoln.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 671-685.

Adaptation of  EBP training to a clinical psychology curriculum

The present article proposes clinical competencies associated with the practice of EBP, and describes initial efforts to implement elements of EBP into training at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. These efforts have occurred in both the classroom and practicum training experiences, and are geared toward helping students become more effective users of the evidence base through their clinical work. Challenges to the implementation of EBP in clinical psychology training are discussed as well. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

 

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Elliott, R. (2010).  Psychotherapy change process research: Realizing the promise.  Psychotherapy Research, 20, 123-135

Process research methodologies

This paper presents the strengths and weakness of different types of change process research, which are strategies complementary to outcome studies (efficacy and effectiveness).  The process research methods described and assessed are: quantitative process-outcome,  qualitative, sequential, and significant event or episodes

Faculty and students

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Feinstein, R.E., Rothberg, B., Weiner, N., Savin, D.M. (2008) University of Colorado Department of Psychiatry Evidence-Based Medicine Educational Project.  American Psychiatry 32:6, pp. 525 - 530

Describes EBP curriculum for psychiatry which has many elents that may inform our recommendations

Describes an existing EB training curriculum for psychiatry residents.  The curriculum was put together based on a literature review, and outcome data were collected and supported effectiveness of curriculum.  Although geared for psychiatry residents, the program contained many specific elements that we might want to incorporate into our guidelines or that may give us ideas for what we might want to include (e.g., real-time question formulation and literature searching, evidence-based practice journal clubs).

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training

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Follette, W. C.; Beitz, K. (2003). Adding a more rigorous scientific agenda to the empirically supported treatment movement. Behavior Modification, Vol 27(3), Jul 2003, 369-386.

Recommends issues to address in the integration of EST in training

The authors argue that to help students to become critical thinkers, training programs should to address several scientific, practical, and clinical issues that are not addressed by EST, such as principles of change, contextual variables, meaningfulness of change, cost-effectiveness, and harmful effects.

Faculty and students

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Franklin, C. (2007)  Teaching Evidence-Based Practices: Strategies for Implementation: A Response to Mullen et al. and Proctor.  Social Work Practice, 17(ISSN: 1049 – 7315). pp.592 - 602

Suggests some broad principles in EBP training for social work which may be relevant for our group

Suggests practical principles for implementing evidence-based practices in teaching and training in social work.  Principles are broad (e.g., give students a transdisciplinary framework, acceptance of constant learning and ambiguity in knowledge), but potentially informative for us as we develop guidelines for EBP training in clinical psychology.

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training

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Garb, H. (1998). Studying the Clinician: Judgment Research and Psychological Assessment

Discusses the biases that may affect clinical judgment and decisions and offers recommendations to increase their accuracy

Decision Making in therapy and other clinical settings requires careful judgment. But how accurate is the judgment of most clinicians? This critical question is addressed in Studying the Clinician: Judgment Research and Psychological Assessment. Chapters examine the cognitive processes of mental health professionals and the subtle biases that may influence their decisions. The author also provides important recommendations on improving the accuracy of psychological assessment, including advice on the optimal use of computers in making clinical judgments. This volume is essential reading for researchers who study the assessment process; mental health professionals and graduate students who wish to reduce bias and improve clinical judgment; and forensic psychologists who must defend the nature of their expertise.

Faculty and students

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Goodheart, C.D., Kazdin, A.E., & Sternberg, R.J. (Eds) (2006).  Evidence-based psychotherapy: Where practice and research meet.  Washington, DC. American Psychological Association Books

Strengths and limitation of the evidence based movement

This book allows several leading scholars and researchers to discuss the strengths and limitation of the evidence based movement, from a clinical and research perspectives. Also discussed are the training and policy implications of this movement.

Faculty and students

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Gray, G. E. (2004). Evidence-based psychiatry. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

EBP supplement

Also helpful as a supplement. One of the common critiques of the Straus et al. or Guyatt & Rennie is that the examples in the main book derive from all over medicine, rather than focusing on mental health examples. On the one hand, this book is purely comprised of mental health examples. On the other hand, it is missing some key ideas (such as the nomogram?!?) that are developed in other volumes. Recommended, but with 3.5 stars out of 5.

Practitioners

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Guyatt, G. H., & Rennie, D. (Eds.). (2008). Users' guides to the medical literature. Chicago: AMA Press.

Anthology of key papers

This is more of an anthology and annotation of key papers. It is most useful as an “Instructor’s Supplement” or a “recommended additional reading.” By now, most of the key ideas have been distilled into the Straus et al.

Hospital practitioners; teachers and supervisors for advanced topics

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Hibbs, E.D., & Jensen, P.S. (2004).  Psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent disorders: Empirically based strategies for clinical practice, Second Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.

Presents description and empirical evidence for specific EBTs for childhood disorders

The authors provide a description of treatment strategies, and provide source information on the manuals and guidelines. They also provide outcome data and discuss limitations, issues of generalizability, and future directions

Faculty and students

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Hill, C.E., & Knox, S. (2013).  Training and supervision in psychotherapy: Evidence for effective practice.  In M.J. Lambert, M.J. (Ed.).  Bergin and Garfield's handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (6th edition). (pages 775-811) New York: Wiley

Supervision

This chapter review the quantitative and qualitative research literature on psychotherapy supervision and training

Faculty/clinical supervisors

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Hockenberry, M., T. Brown, et al. (2009). "Teaching evidence-based practice skills in a hospital." Journal of continuing education in nursing 40(1): 28-32.

Teaching EBP skills to healthcare providers

EAY: The big value of this article is discussing how creating a regular venue for using EBP skills led to policy and procedural changes within an institution. More of a testimonial; documents positive attitudes and buy-in. The sidebars provide useful bulleted lists of key skills

Hospital practitioners

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Hoge, M. A., J. Tondora, et al. (2003). "Training in evidence-based practice." Psychiatric Clinics of North America 26: 851-865.

Clear and excellent summary of concepts in EBM and provides suggestions for how to build this into training programs

Excellent overview. Provides a clear summary of core concepts in EBM, and discusses strategies for implementation. Perhaps the single most valuable article in my set for a thoughtful introduction to the skills, concepts, and application.  Teaching skills: (1) Asking answerable clinical questions, (2) search skills for relevant information, (3) Critical appraisal skills for rapid identification of key info, (4) "Will this help my patient?". Discusses journal club as a common teaching mechanism, and notes that by itself a journal club may not generalize the skills and behavior to clinical practice. Contrasts EBP as a process versus teaching a evidence based specific practice (e.g., CBT for anxiety), which has been the emphasis for psychology and the EST/EVT approach. Teaching a specific EBP may be more practical in situations where teaching the process is not feasible (due to lack of prior training or poor access to online resources). Also provides clear, concise overview of teaching models, including a bulleted list on p. 858. Idea of "academic detailing" was new to me, but sounds like it has been used successfully by pharma.

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training

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Howard, M. O., P. Allen-Meares, et al. (2007). "Teaching evidence-based practice: Strategic and pedagogical recommendations for schools of social work." Research on Social Work Practice 17: 561-568.

Recommendations for using EBP

Strongly endorses value of teaching EBPs; identifies many challenges within area of social work (including weaker research tradition). Offers 12 recommendations, many of which seem appropriate for psychology training (though how many will depend on where each program falls on the Boulder-Vail continuum). (1) Avoid hyperbole about EBP; (2) training on information science methods; (3) exposure to a broad sampling of systematic reviews and meta-analyses; (4) argues for increased specialization rather than generalist training (obviously will be a range of opinion about the breadth vs depth issue); also under this point argues that training should focus on research consumption skills rather than research generation at most programs (e.g., research methods or the normal stats class might become an elective, and teach critical appraisal and decision making instead); also provides suggestions for how this could be evaluated; (5) argues that social work usually should be preparing effective practitioners -- the scientist-practitioner may not be a realistic goal for most social work programs; (6) emphasize problem-based learning; (7) teach the ethical value of transparency and honesty in practice, including discussion of rationale and weight-of-evidence for interventions; (8) programs should create a faculty committee to track evidence and educational innovations -- goal is to have local expertise that stays current; (9) test students to ensure competence on EBP skills prior to graduation; (10) teach that there are no EBPs per se, instead all have different degrees of evidence for specific problems and populations (similar to how now talking about test validity -- not an intrinsic property of the test); (11) programs should offer free access to databases for field supervisors, and look for other ways to facilitate uptake of EBP throughout training; (12) programs should develop CE efforts to retrain core faculty and adjuncts. Overarching theme is that EBP requires systematic organizational change to accelerate uptake and increase impact.

Faculty and students

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Hunsley J. & Mash E. (Eds.). (2008). A guide to assessments that work. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

This is an edited anthology of chapters written about specific disorders, and clinical issues by content experts. The chapters use a consistent framework of sections and tables to present information about evidence-based assessment strategies.

 

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Hunsley, J. (2007). "Training psychologists for evidence-based practice." Canadian Psychology 38: 32-42.

EBP on assessment and treatment

Much more detailed than the Hunsley & Mash, and not just EBA focused. Reviews professional goals and mandates consistent with EBP (including training in professional psychology), reviews and rebuts commons concerns about EBP (EBP should be conducted in warm, empathic manner; it is not "cookbook," concerns about hierarchy of evidence overstated). Research base for utility of assessment procedures in general underdeveloped. Tracking patient progress through treatment appears to be an exception: Process monitoring results in less deterioration and higher success rates. Rebuts claim that "real life" patients are more impaired than study participants (see p. 36 for complete review); and comorbidity appears largely unrelated to outcome. EBT also achieves good coverage of presenting problems (89% of youths, based on the Hawaii services data), and also appears to generalize well in terms of measured outcomes. Recommends supplementing core psychological training with training in efficient evidence search skills and critical appraisal. Training on assessment should definitely include functional assessment strategies, tracking progress, measuring outcomes. Training on treatment should start with EBPs (meaning those with the most current evidence of validity for common problems with the most general populations).

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Hunsley, J. and E. J. Mash (2005). "Introduction to the special section on developing guidelines for the evidence-based assessment (EBA) of adult disorders." Psychological assessment 17(3): 251-255.

Summary of EBA principles

Introduction to special section of Psychological Assessment on EBA. Provides clear summary of EBA principles, including extension beyond reliability and validity to also consider utility: (a) treatment utility, (b) diagnostic utility, and (c) assessment related costs, and cost-benefit analysis. Also points towards the importance of integrated assessment strategies (versus the field typically focusing on individual tests in isolation). Need to balance accuracy versus limited time and resources. Training should cover techniques required for evidence based assessment (such as semistructured interviews, self-monitoring; awareness of heuristics and de-biasing strategies) -- usually not included in current curricula. Brief, well worth reading. 

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Jenkins, M.M., Youngstrom, E.A., Washburn, J.J., & Youngstrom, J.K. (2011). Evidence-Based Strategies Improve Assessment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder by Community Practitioners. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42(2), 121-129.

Evidence-based assessment approaches and improving diagnostic accuracy

The misdiagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has become a major public health concern. Would available evidence-based assessment (EBA) strategies help improve diagnostic accuracy and are clinicians willing to consider these strategies in practice? The purpose of the present study was to document the extent to which using an EBA decision tool—a probability nomogram—improves the interpretation of family history and test data by clinicians and to examine the acceptability of the nomogram technique to clinicians. Over 600 clinicians across the U.S. and Canada attending continuing education seminars were trained to use the nomogram. Participants estimated the probability that a youth in a clinical vignette had bipolar disorder, first using clinical judgment and then using the nomogram. Brief training of clinicians (less than 30 minutes) in using the nomogram for assessing PBD improved diagnostic accuracy, consistency, and agreement. The majority of clinicians endorsed using the nomogram in practice. EBA decision aids, such as the nomogram, may lead to a significant decrease in overdiagnosis and help clinicians detect true cases of PBD.

Practitioners

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Kazdin, A.E. (2005). Evidence-based assessment for children and adolescents: Issues in measurement development and clinical application. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 548-558.

Evidence based assessment

This commentary raises considerations regarding how one might proceed in developing evidence-based assessment (EBA). Developing EBA might begin by delineating the different purposes of assessment and then, for each purpose, identifying the special requirements and then the criteria for stating when these requirements are met. To illustrate the special requirements of different assessment goals, monitoring of patient progress in treatment is discussed.

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Lambert, M.J. (Ed.) (2013).  Bergin and Garfield's handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (6th edition).  New York: Wiley

Current knowledge about research methods

This book summarize the current knowledge about research methods, psychotherapy efficacy and effectiveness, variables related to treatment outcome, as well as major theoretical approaches, treatment settings and populations.

Faculty and students

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Leffingwell, T.R. & Collins,F.L.  (2008).  Graduate Training in Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology.   Handbook of evidence-based therapies for children and adolescents: Bringing science and practice, pp. 551 - 568

Outlines core components of training in EBP

This chapter overlaps some with these author’s 2007 article in Journal of Clinical Psychology. They outline the core parts of training in EBP, in the context of graduate studies. Interestingly, they present a series of myths about EBP, complete with data and relevant arguments to dispute these. An outline of core components of teaching EBP within a doctoral program is provided, including teaching students how to ‘data mine’, the importance of faculty modeling the integration of science and practice, the saliency of evaluation methods that assess students’ ability to obtain data and apply it to an individual patient, and the shift in the supervisor role that occurs as a result of EBP.  The chapter concludes with discussion of how EBP has become integrated into the doctoral training program at Oklahoma State Univ.

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training

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Lilienfeld,S. O. (2007).  Psychological treatments that cause harm.  Perspectives on psychological science, 2, 53-70

Potentially harmful treatments

Based on empirical evidence, this paper identified a list of treatment that may lead to deterioration.  It is at least as important to make trainees aware of potentially harmful treatments, as it is to train them in empirically supported ones

Faculty/clinical supervisors and students

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McGinn T, Jervis R, Wisnivesky J, Keitz S, Wyer PC (2008); Evidence-based Medicine Teaching Tips Working Group.Tips for teachers of evidence-based medicine: clinical prediction rules (CPRs) and estimating pretest probability.

Tips for faculty to teach Evidence-Based Medicine

 The articles provides teaching tips to help physicians appreciate the importance of applying evidence to their every day decisions. In 2 or 3 short teaching sessions, clinicians can also become familiar with the use of Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) in applying evidence consistently in everyday practice.

Faculty

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McHugh, R.K. & Barlow, D.H. (eds). (2012). Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological interventions. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press. . xiv 274 pp.

Reviews current efforts in dissemination of evidence-based treatments, including measurement of outcomes 

This book discusses  evidence-based treatments and the need for dissemination/implementation. It includes nine chapters describing dissemination programs, including procedures and practices used to determine outcome.

Faculty and students

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Milne, D. (2009). Applying Supervision. In Evidence-Based Clinical Supervision: Principles and Practice. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Evidence-based approach to clinical supervision

What are the main activities that supervisors should undertake within supervision? What goals or functions are they supposed to achieve? Which environmental factors are critical to these activities and functions? The heart of the supervisory exercise is the facilitation of the supervisee's learning and development. To address these questions, the article builds on the augmented evidence-based clinical supervision (EBCS) model. It suggests that supervision is basically a problem-solving cycle, one that pivots around the supervisor and supervisee, nested in the alliance and which occurs within an organizational context.

Clinical supervisors using EBP approach

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Milne, D. (2009). Reframing Supervision. In Evidence-Based Clinical Supervision: Principles and Practice. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Evidence-based approach to clinical supervision

There is a fundamental weakness shared by many models in that they generally lack conceptual rigor. Although there is a strong tendency to judge research and theory on the basis of outcomes, research needs to start with careful reasoning. Models lack the degree of precision needed for supervisors to know what to do in specific situations and it also means that research work is hampered. Research would be better served by an explicit model that defines the constructs that are involved, so that an appropriately clear hypothesis can be explicated and tested. In addition to recognizing the complex work environments in which supervisors work, there is also a need for models to clarify the way that moment-to-moment interactions are supposed to unfold. Models need to state what it is that supervisors are supposed to be doing within the process of a supervision session, and the anticipated effects this will have on the supervisee.

Clinical supervisors using EBP approach

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Mullin, E.J., Bellamy, J.L., Bledsoe, S.E.., Francois, J.J. (2007).  Teaching Evidence-Based Practice.  Research on Social Work Practice 17:5, pp. 574 – 582.  Doi:10.1177/1049731507303234

Describes strategies for teaching EBP in social work curriculum

Describes 4 general strategies (and specific recommendations regarding courses and curriculum) that should be adopted by schools of social work in training  students in evidence practice.  Issues related to these strategies are illustrated with a collaborative pilot study between Columbian University and three NYC agencies. 

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training

 

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Nathan, P.E., & Gorman, J.M., (Eds) (2002).  A guide to Treatments that work (2nd edition).  New York: Oxford University Press

Research in support of empirically validated treatments

This book describes the research evidence supporting psychological and pharmacological treatments that have been empirically validated  for treating childhood, adolescent, and adult disorders.

Faculty and students

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Nezu , A. M. Nezu , C. M. (2008). Evidence-based outcome research: A practical guide to conducting randomized controlled trials for psychosocial interventions. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

Guidelines for randomized controlled trials of psychosocial intervention

This book provides conceptual and practical information for conducting and evaluating evidence-based outcome studies of psychosocial interventions.

Faculty, students

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Norcross , J. C. Beutler , L. E. Levant , R. F. (eds.). (2006). Evidence-Based Practices in Mental Health: Debate and Dialogue on the Fundamental Questions, Washington, DC, American Psychological Association.

Evidence based practices

This book regroups experts in the field on mental health to address and debate crucial issues about evidence based practices (EBP), such as what qualifies as EBP, what qualifies as research supporting EBP, the impact of treatment manuals, the validity of randomized clinical trials, the types of empirically validated variables (treatment methods, therapeutic relationship, therapist, client, principles of change), and the adequacy of EBT and treatment as usual for client diversity.

Faculty and students

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Norcross (Eds) (2011).  Psychotherapy relationships that work (2nd edition).  New York: Oxford University Press

the therapeutic relationship as predicting psychotherapy outcome

This book describes the research evidence supporting variables related to the therapeutic relationship (as single factors of change or in interaction some client's characteristics) that are predictors of psychotherapy outcome.

Faculty and students

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Norcross, J. C., Hogan, T. P., & Koocher, G. P. (2008).  Clinician's guide to evidence-based practices.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Training in the basics of EBP (asking the right questions, locating the best available research translating research into practice, etc .

his volume synthesizes evidence-based practice in a manner that is highly accessible. The book includes a CD that includes interactive examples and hyperlinks. It is extremely user-friendly.

Faculty and students

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Norcross, J.C., Beutler, L.E., & Levant, R.F. (Eds) (2006).  Evidence-based practices in Mental health: Debate and dialogue on the fundamental questions.  Washington, DC. American Psychological Association Books.

Major issues related to evidence based practice

This book addresses major issues related to evidence based practice by having some of the most well-known figures in the field presenting their views (pros and cons) and reacting to the perspective of others about question such as: "What qualifies as evidence of effective practice?"; "What qualifies as research on which to judge effective practice?" ; "What should be validated?" (e., treatment method, therapists)

Faculty and students

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O'Donohue, W. & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2013).  Case studies in clinical psychological science. New York: Oxford University Press

Provides a series of case studies  that illustrate how to apply empirically based principles to complex clinical cases

Cases include both child and adult cases which illustrate the use of empirically-based assessment and treatment approaches, written by renown experts

Faculty and students

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Rakovshik, S.,  McManus, F. (2010).  Establishing evidence-based training in cognitive behavioral therapy:  A review of current empirical findings and theoretical guidance.  Clinical Psychology Review,(20), pp. 496 - 516

Extensive training and ongoing supervision by expert with focus on theory is needed to effectively train students in CBT

Review of literature of CBT training and dissemination.  Outcome: patient outcome and therapist competence.  Training length was classified within three categories: Extensive (137 hours or more; intermediate (60-137 hours) brief (60 hours or less). Among the general conclusions: extensive training is associated with increase competence and improvement; more instruction to therapists who are slow to develop competence appears to be indicated; theoretical instruction should be part of initial training, adherence monitoring, with feedback and instruction is important in early phase; sustained supervision may be important for maintaining competence. Expert CBT supervisor may be crucial in initial stage of development.

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training

 

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Roth, A., & Fonagy, P (2005).  What works for whom? (2nd ed). NY: Guilford Press

Psychotherapy outcome

This book reviews evidence of the effectiveness of different psychotherapy treatment for a variety of psychological disorders

Faculty and students

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Shlonsky, A. & Gibbs, L. (2004). Will the Real Evidence-Based Practice Please Stand Up?  Teaching the Process of Evidence-Based Practice to the Helping Professions.  Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 4:2, pp 137 - 153.

Discusses how to integrate EBP training into social work programs (following Sackett model)

This article could easily be helpful for doctoral training programs that are not scientifically oriented. It provides an easy-to-read summary of the authors’ thoughts about integrating EBP training into their respective social work programs. They walk the reader through the various steps involved in EBP (Sackett et al.’s definition), provide clear examples, and outline the benefits and challenges of EBP.

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training

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Spring, B. (2007).  Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology:  What It Is, Why It Matters: What you Need to Know.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 6317, pp. 611 – 631. doi:10:1002/jtlp203073

Defines EBP (as separate from ESTs) and discusses models for EBP training in doctoral programs

This article reviews (in a concise, orderly fashion) the basic definitions of evidence-based practice. In particular, this article delineates the difference between EBP and empirically-supported treatments, with particular attention to the additional skills that are needed in order to train a clinical psychologist to do EBP. Throughout this article, there are numerous suggestions re: doctoral training models.

Faculty reading prior to implementing EBP training; possibly students as well

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Stoltenberg, C.D. & Pace, T.M. (2008).  Science and Practice in Supervision: An Evidence Based Practice in Psychology Approach.  W. Bruce Walsh (Ed.), Biennial Review of Counseling (pp. 71 - 90).  New York: Routledge

Discussion of training EBP in the context of clinical supervision

This chapter provides a thorough discussion of using a EBPP model in supervision. The authors discuss a number of concerns, including data examining different models of supervision (e.g., developmental versus psychotherapy-oriented versus competency-based), individual characteristics of supervisees that influence the process of supervision, studies on the nature of the supervisory relationship, and information about how to determine whether one is effective as a supervisor.

Clinical supervisors using EBP approach

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Straus, Sharon E., Glasziou, Paul, Richardson, W. Scott, & Haynes, R. Brian. (2011). Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (4th ed.). New York: Churchill Livingstone.

EBM in teaching strategies and patient-centered care

This is the fourth, current edition of the fountainhead of evidence based medicine. They still have the most intriguing ideas and excellent emphases on (a) outstanding teaching strategies and (b) patient-centered care (c) using the most current evidence. Extremely highly recommended.

Faculty/clinical supervisors and students

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Weisz, JR. & Kazdin, A.E (Eds.) (2010) Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents, second edition). New York/London: Oxford University Press.

Presents description and empirical evidence for specific EBTs for childhood disorders

The book provides conceptual underpinnings of evidence-based therapies for  anxiety, depression, oppositional behavior and conduct problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, anorexia nervosa, enuresis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance use disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder,  how interventions are delivered on a session-by-session basis, and what the research shows about treatment effectiveness. Recommended manuals and other clinical and training resources are discussed, and details are provided on how to obtain them. The section on implementation and dissemination focuses on ways to improve clinical services in real-world settings, including a chapter on cultural diversity issues.

Faculty and students

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Wiltsey Stirman, S., Spokas, S., Creed, T.A., Farabaugh, D.T., Bhar, S.S., Brown, G.K., Perivoliotis, D., Grant, P.M. and Beck, A.T. (2010). Training and Consultation in Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments in Public Mental Health Settings:  The ACCESS  Model.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41:1, pp. 48 - 56

Overview of ACCESS model for large-scale training of practitioners in agencies

This article provides a concise overview of the ACCESS model. ACCESS = assess and adapt, convey basics, consult, evaluate, study outcomes, and sustain. This model was developed to provide a comprehensive approach to training EBTs for large-scale application within both community-based agencies and practitioners.

Those wishing to scale-up EBT to agencies and/or practitioners

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Youngstrom, E. (2008). Commentary: Evidence-based Assessment is not Evidence-based Medicine--Commentary on Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33(9), 1015-1020.

EBM and assessment

Some early reflections about points of connection and difference between EBM and traditional psychological approaches to assessment. It is short!

Practitioners

 

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