Problem Area: Panic Disorder

2015 EST Status: Treatment pending re-evaluation Very strong: High-quality evidence that treatment improves symptoms and functional outcomes at post-treatment and follow-up; little risk of harm; requires reasonable amount of resources; effective in non-research settings

Strong: Moderate- to high-quality evidence that treatment improves symptoms OR functional outcomes; not a high risk of harm; reasonable use of resources

Weak: Low or very low-quality evidence that treatment produces clinically meaningful effects on symptoms or functional outcomes; Gains from the treatment may not warrant resources involved

Insufficient Evidence: No meta-analytic study could be identified

Insufficient Evidence: Existing meta-analyses are not of sufficient quality

Treatment pending re-evaluation

1998 EST Status: Strong Research Support Strong: Support from two well-designed studies conducted by independent investigators.

Modest: Support from one well-designed study or several adequately designed studies.

Controversial: Conflicting results, or claims regarding mechanisms are unsupported.

Strength of Research Support

Empirical Review Status
2015 Criteria
(Tolin et al. Recommendation)
Very Strong
Strong
Weak
Insufficient Evidence
Treatment pending re-evaluation
1998 Criteria
(Chambless et al. EST)
Strong
Modest
Controversial

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Brief Summary

  • Basic premise: Thoughts, feelings and behaviors are inter-related, so altering one can help to alleviate problems in another.
  • Essence of therapy: Cognitive therapy aims to help the person identify, challenge, and modify dysfunctional ideas related to panic symptoms (e.g., catastrophic consequences of bodily sensations). Avoidance of panic and panic-cues is targeted through exposure exercises, including both in vivo (e.g., going to crowded places or driving in traffic) and interoceptive (e.g., bodily sensations) exposures.
  • Length: Approx. 12-16 sessions

Treatment Resources

Editors: Evan Forman, PhD; Joanna Kaye, BA

Note: The resources provided below are intended to supplement not replace foundational training in mental health treatment and evidence-based practice

Treatment Manuals / Outlines

Treatment Manuals
  • Anxiety and Panic Disorder: Patient Treatment Manual (Andrews et al.)
Books Available for Purchase Through External Sites

Training Materials and Workshops

Measures, Handouts and Worksheets

  • Panic Disorder Severity Scale – Self Report Form
  • Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire
  • Body Sensations Questionnaire
  • Anxiety Sensitivity Index

Self-help Books

Important Note: The books listed above are based on empirically-supported in-person treatments. They have not necessarily been evaluated empirically either by themselves or in conjunction with in-person treatment. We list them as a resource for clinicians who assign them as an adjunct to conducting in-person treatment.

Smartphone Apps

Important Note: The apps listed above are based on empirically-supported in-person treatments. They have not necessarily been evaluated empirically either by themselves or in conjunction with in-person treatment. We list them as a resource for clinicians who assign them as an adjunct to conducting in-person treatment.

Video Demonstrations

Videos Available for Purchase Through External Sites

Video Descriptions

Videos Available for Purchase Through External Sites

Clinical Trials

Meta-analyses and Systematic Reviews

Other Treatment Resources